1. Show that the arguer’s position leads to unacceptable implications. “If we follow your argument through to its logical conclusion, neither of us would be okay with what happens.”
This is called reduction ad absurdum.
2. Turning the tables shows how a position claimed by one party actually benefits the other.
“What you just said reinforces my point.”
3. Dilemmas suggest that the opposing arguer must choose between unattractive alternatives.
“We don’t have a good choice here. Either we choose A or we choose B.”
4. Argument from residues dictates the opponent’s position by eliminating all other possibilities.
“None of those possibilities is viable. That is why we have to decide it this way.”
5. Suggest that what is true of the lesser is true of the greater or vice versa.
6. “If it is true of this, it must also be true of that.”
This is called Argument a fortiori (argument of more or less)
7. Contradictions and inconsistencies eliminate at least one of the other arguer’s positions. This also questions the other arguer’s general credibility. Show that they are not arguing effectively at this point and that means there are likely other ineffective parts of their argument.
I keep focusing on how to argue properly because in my daily life I witness people who would like to have better conversations, better dialogue and better arguments that actually resolve the issue, if possible. These ideas help greatly with improving communication.