We praise students for their effort "wow you got it right that's a really good score. You must have worked really hard." They were not made to feel that they had some special gift; you praise for doing what it takes to succeed.
After the praise, they began to differ. The "ability praise" pushed students into the fixed mindset and they showed all the signs of it. When we give them a choice, they rejected a challenging new test they could learn from.
They did not want to do anything that could expose their flaws. When students were praised for efforts, 90% of them want to do a challenging new task from which they could learn.
The effort kids simply thought that the difficulty or challenge meant applying more effort; they did not see it as a failure and they did not think it reflected on their intellect.
I can see how this would apply to school, also to relationships, work etc.